S4 biology yearly exam mc questions

Other than the formal curriculum, we believe that students can learn more and deeper through exploration of real-world challenges and problems. This year, three teams of students were sent to participate in the Mathematics Project Competition. It was challenging to prepare for this project, as this competition covers many difficult mathematics concepts. We have spent much time and effort to learn those concepts.

S4 biology yearly exam mc questions

Experiences From An African Country. Ghana and other countries in West and Central Africa have the highest prevalence of SCD and related disorders in the world.

Lack of SCD Clinics in hospitals to provide specialist care for sickle cell patients. Lack of capacity building of Health Care Workers eg. Need for development of treatment protocols, guidelines and training modules for holistic management of the disease.

Lack of laboratory services to provide highly sensitive and specific diagnostic facilities at all regional hospitals and a basic package for district hospitals to facilitate prompt diagnosis and quality management.

INTRODUCTION Ghana as one of the countries with the highest prevalence of SCD and other related disorders in the world calls for a holistic attempt in providing a clinical, health educational, social and psychological care for affected as well as unaffected population for all to make informed choices.

It looks at the challenges across all aspects of the sickle cell condition; from pre-conception to living and caring for people with the sickle cell condition and their families.

The objectives were as follows: To collaborate with all stakeholders to create awareness of the SCD since it affects the whole community; To initiate pre-conception screening project for people in Ghana and other developing countries.

To assist in the establishment of sickle cell clinics and support groups in the various hospitals and health centers. The approach used was institution based formal health education.

S4 biology yearly exam mc questions

Training sessions were organized for coordinators and volunteers in each region. The approach used was community based health education. Mass media education and public events were also done, supported by the Ministries of Health and Education using publicity drive: Two coordinators were trained in each region, one from Ministry of Health and the other from Ministry of Education.

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A room was rehabilitated for the Tamale Sickle Cell Clinic. In Bolgatanga and Wa, all rooms were ready and furnished by the Regional Hospitals. The Counseling Units started running before official opening of clinics which was done at the end of the project.

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All official opening ceremonies were covered by press. This was a way of creating awareness of SCD. Advocacy groups made up of patients, parents and people with interest in SCD were established in all three northern regions. We found in our survey the following; lack of knowledge, compounded by myths and superstitions in most localities but with knowledge on SCD, this got rid of all such concepts.

Public transport was also used some times.

S4 biology yearly exam mc questions

Another challenge that came up was the lack of staff for the project, since some of the trained personnel for the project had to discontinue work in the north. This was also solved by using volunteers and coordinators from the Regional Hospitals and Regional Health Directorate who were given some form of training in each region before work started.

With the availability of funds and similar efforts in other regions and adoption of recommendations, there is genuine prospect of greater countrywide change on the horizon.

People saw the need for screening to know their sickle cell status to make informed choices before having children. This is the only way out for developing countries.


Introduction by James Eckman, M. Use of blood transfusion during acute illness by Peter Lane, M. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions by Ross Fasano, M.

Management of chronic transfusion by James Eckman, M. A m J Hematol. Abstract Conflicting evidence has suggested that low mean nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen saturation SpO2 predicts future hospital days for acute severe pain in children with sickle cell anemia SCA. A total of children with SCA with a median age of Overnight polysomnography evaluations at baseline health were measured and adjudicated centrally.

Multivariable models created in two steps were included. First all plausible covariates were included in a screening model.

Contrary to our hypothesis, higher but not lower mean nocturnal SpO2 was associated with higher rates of pain episodes IRR 1. Higher log OAHI did not pass screening criteria.

This article is protected by copyright.The State Board of Education adopted the History-Social Science Framework on July 14, This is the final digital version of the Framework. History-Social Science Framework (PDF; 11MB) (Note: this is a large file, allow time to load or save the file to your computer before opening.

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History-Social Science Framework - Curriculum Frameworks (CA Dept of Education)