Somalia was known to the ancient Egyptians as the Land of Punt. They valued its trees which produced the aromatic gum resins frankincense and myrrh. Punt is also mentioned in the Bible, and ancient Romans called it Cape Aromatica.
Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities.
Medieval university and List of medieval universities The university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Catholic tradition. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception.
In the early medieval periodmost new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teaching the ius gentium or Roman law of peoples which was in demand across Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against Robbery essay spm and church.
Bologna's special claim to Alma Mater Studiorum [ clarification needed ] is based on its autonomy, its awarding of degrees, and other structural arrangements, making it the oldest continuously operating institution  independent of kings, emperors or any kind of direct religious authority.
From a medieval manuscript.
The conventional date ofor according to some,  records when Irnerius commences teaching Emperor Justinian's 6th century codification of Roman law, the Corpus Iuris Civilisrecently discovered at Pisa. Lay students arrived in the city from many lands entering into a contract to gain this knowledge, organising themselves into 'Nationes', divided between that of the Cismontanes and that of the Ultramontanes.
The students "had all the power … and dominated the masters". All over Europe rulers and city governments began to create universities to satisfy a European thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated from these institutions.
Princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to this understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts.
Some scholars believe that these works represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. The efforts of this " scholasticism " were focused on applying Aristotelian logic and thoughts about natural processes to biblical passages and attempting to prove the viability of those passages through reason.
This became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. Heidelberg University is the oldest university in Germany and among Europe's best ranked. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, although the northern primarily Germany, France and Great Britain and southern universities primarily Italy did have many elements in common.
Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures, disputations and examinations. Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophyand metaphysics ; while HippocratesGalenand Avicenna were used for medicine.
Outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter. Italian universities focused on law and medicine, while the northern universities focused on the arts and theology.
There were distinct differences in the quality of instruction in these areas which were congruent with their focus, so scholars would travel north or south based on their interests and means. There was also a difference in the types of degrees awarded at these universities. English, French and German universities usually awarded bachelor's degrees, with the exception of degrees in theology, for which the doctorate was more common.
Italian universities awarded primarily doctorates.Robbery essay - The Leading Term Paper Writing Website - We Can Write You High-Quality Essays, Research Papers and up to Dissertations At The Lowest Prices Top-Quality Academic Writing Service - We Provide Reliable Assignments Plagiarism Free High-Quality Paper Writing Service - We Can Write You Top-Quality Essays, Term .
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