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In other words an IPO is the first sale of stock by a private company to the public. IPOs typically involve small, young companies raising capital to finance growth. For investors IPOs can risky as it is difficult to predict the value of the stock shares when they open for trading.
When an exporter agrees to supply a customer in another country, the exporter needs to know that the goods will be paid for. This gives the supplier an assurance that their invoice will be paid, beyond any other assurances or contracts made with the customer.
Letters of credit are often complex documents that require careful drafting to protect the interests of buyer and seller.
It is common for exporters to experience delays in obtaining payment against letters of credit because they have either failed to understand the terms within the letter of credit, failed to meet the terms, or both.
It is important therefore for sellers to understand all aspects of letters of credit and to ensure letters of credit are properly drafted, checked, approved and their conditions met.
It is also important for sellers to use appropriate professional services to validate the authenticity of any unknown bank issuing a letter of credit. Typical obligations covered by letters of guarantee are concerned with: Tender Guarantees Bid Bonds - whereby the bank assures the buyer that the supplier will not refuse a contract if awarded.
Performance Guarantee - This guarantees that financial ratios for business plan goods or services are delivered in accordance with contract terms and timescales. Advance Payment Guarantee - This guarantees that any advance payment received by the supplier will be used by the supplier in accordance with the terms of contract between seller and buyer.
There are other types of letters of guarantee, including obligations concerning customs and tax, etc, and as with letters of credit, these are complex documents with extremely serious implications.
For this reasons suppliers and customers alike must check and obtain necessary validation of any issued letters of guarantee. Liabilities are long-term loans of the type used to finance the business and short-term debts or money owing as a result of trading activities to date.
Long term liabilities, along with Share Capital and Reserves make up one side of the balance sheet equation showing where the money came from.
The other side of the balance sheet will show Current Liabilities along with various Assets, showing where the money is now. NPV is essentially a measurement of all future cashflow revenues minus costs, also referred to as net benefits that will be derived from a particular investment whether in the form of a project, a new product line, a proposition, or an entire businessminus the cost of the investment.
Logically if a proposition has a positive NPV then it is profitable and is worthy of consideration. Corporations generally develop their own rules for NPV calculations, including discount rate. NPV is not easy to understand for non-financial people - wikipedia seems to provide a good detailed explanation if you need one.
Net profit normally refers to profit after deduction of all operating expenses, notably after deduction of fixed costs or fixed overheads. Establish total profit after tax and interest for the past year. Divide this by the number of shares issued. This gives you the earnings per share.
Divide the price of the stock or share by the earnings per share. It shows profit performance, which often has little to do with cash, stocks and assets which must be viewed from a separate perspective using balance sheet and cashflow statement. The relationship between current assets readily convertible into cash usually current assets less stock and current liabilities.
A sterner test of liquidity. The source of restricted funds can be from government, foundations and trusts, grant-awarding bodies, philanthropic organisations, private donations, bequests from wills, etc.
The practical implication is that restricted funds are ring-fenced and must not be used for any other than their designated purpose, which may also entail specific reporting and timescales, with which the organisation using the funds must comply.
A glaring example of misuse of restricted funds would be when Maxwell spent Mirror Group pension funds on Mirror Group development.
A percentage figure representing profit before interest against the money that is invested in the business.
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Many business managers and owners use the term in a general sense as a means of assessing the merit of an investment or business decision. Strictly speaking Return On Investment is defined as: The main point is that the term seeks to define the profit made from a business investment or business decision.
Bear in mind that costs and profits can be ongoing and accumulating for several years, which needs to be taken into account when arriving at the correct figures. Also called a cable transfer. The glossary above attempts to cover the main terms used in business.Before giving you a loan, a banker will ask about your business’s financial ratios and how they compare with benchmarks in your industry..
Ratios are used to examine different aspects of a company’s performance and to show how the company stacks up within a particular industry or region. A well-written business plan should include a mission statement, business and management structure, a marketing plan and financial projections.
A business plan is all conceptual until you start filling in the numbers and terms. The sections about your marketing plan and strategy are interesting to read, but they don't mean a thing if you.
Business Plan Pro is the fastest, easiest business plan software for small business, startups, and corporate business planning.
Features include + sample business plans, SBA-approved format, Excel integration, and more. Financial ratios are a way to evaluate the performance of your business and identify potential problems. Each ratio informs you about factors such as the earning power, solvency, efficiency and debt load of your business.
Use and Reprint Rights for Your FAST Business Plan Template. Business Ratios. 26 Introduction Ratio Analysis Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Industry Profile Financial Ratios Quick Ratio Current Ratio Current Liabilities to Net Worth Current Liabilities to Inventory Total Liabilities to Net Worth Fixed Assets to Net Worth Collection Period.