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Advanced Search Abstract Objective To conduct an evidence-based review of pediatric pain measures. Methods Seventeen measures were examined, spanning pain intensity self-report, questionnaires and diaries, and behavioral observations.
Information was highlighted to help professionals evaluate the instruments for particular purposes e. Future directions in pain assessment are identified, such as highlighting culture and the impact of pain on functioning. This review examines the research and characteristics of some of the commonly used pain tools in hopes that the reader will be able to use this evidence-based approach and the information in future selection of assessment devices for pediatric pain.
However, it is not readily evident how pain should be monitored. Further, pain occurs across a spectrum of conditions including acute injuries and medical events, recurrent or chronic pain, and pain related to chronic disease.
Chronic pain, on the other hand, may or may not be symptomatic of underlying, ongoing tissue damage or chronic disease.
Clearly, evaluating pain is complicated both by the personal nature of the experience and the variety of forms in which it can exist. Unfortunately, pain is a frequent and vivid part of childhood, whether as part of routine care e. Outside of the medical arena, children experience frequent bumps, bruises, and injuries as they acquire coordination and adapt to their quickly developing body.
Instruments measuring pain intensity, location, and affect are typically used to assess acute pain of relatively brief duration. Measurement of recurrent and chronic pain requires tools that also measure the frequency, duration, time course, and activity interference due to pain.
These two reviews and the current report have similarities, for example, both used the same Society of Pediatric Psychology Assessment Task Force criteria Cohen, La Greca, Blount, et al. In addition, where the groups overlapped, there are generally consistent recommendations.Evidence-based research provides the basis for sound clinical practice guidelines and recommendations.
The database of guidelines available from the National Guideline Clearinghouse and the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force are especially useful.
Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center Portland, OR April Investigators: Mark Helfand, MD, MPH pain assessment and documentation and staff awareness of pain, and increased use of How do the assessment and management of acute pain differ between patients.
EBPM = Evidence-based Pain Management; CPPI = Cancer Pain Practice Index. ∗ Nonapplicable indicator was indicated when an indicator was not relevant to a particular patient or situation (e.g., initial pain assessment is performed only at admission, thus not relevant to patients admitted before the study period).
Improving Reassessment and Documentation of Pain Management Performance Improvement development of national pain assessment and management reassessments, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines19 22 provide a source for recommendations based on known drug. The Joint Commission developed pain standards for assessment and treatment based upon the recommendations in the Acute Pain Clinical Practice Guideline.
The Joint Commission requires that hospitals select and use the same pain assessment tools across all departments.
Unlike the majority of existing pain assessment tools, the PAT assesses both behavioral and physiologic pain cues and is appropriate for use and testing during .