Literature written in French language, by citizens of other nations such as BelgiumSwitzerlandCanadaSenegalAlgeriaMoroccoetc.
The 20th century The vanguardia Eventually the innovations of Modernismo became routine, and poets began to look elsewhere for ways to be original.
The next important artistic movement in Latin America was the avant-garde, or the vanguardia, as it is known in Spanish.
This movement reflected several European movements, especially Surrealism. It can be safely said that the repercussions of Surrealism in Latin America lasted throughout the 20th century. The Latin American variants were distinctive and rich and produced several masterworks not only in literature but also in the plastic arts, painting in particular.
Modernismo had been a renovation of poetic form and techniques, extending to the use of free verse.
But, on the whole, the experiments remained within accepted and traditional prosodic molds. The vanguardia, on the other hand, instituted a radical search for new, daring, confrontational themes and shockingly novel forms.
These changes occurred at different paces in the various genres. The most daring and quick to adapt was poetryclearly because it was aimed at a smaller, more sophisticated and receptive audience. During the first half of the 20th century, Latin American literature was blessed with many fine poets: In the wake of Modernismo and against its by now worn innovations and aspirationsvanguardista poetry freed itself from prosodic constraints and the pursuit of sublime beauty, choosing instead to seek the poetic in the prosaic and to delve into the inner recesses of the self, no matter how dark.
It is a torrent of poetry poured from a self untrammeled by decorumusing what appear to be Surrealist free-association techniques, flowing in a blank verse that nevertheless sounds more Shakespearean than anything else in its extravagant and fertile imagery.
Sexual impulses are sometimes evident and sometimes lurk just beneath the surface, as metaphors pile upon each other with apparent disregard for order or limit. It is a poetry at times expressing the deep despair of city dwellers seeking a more direct contact with nature and the purer sources of life.
Neruda was able to focus his poetic impulses after a political conversion brought about by the Spanish Civil War — After this event, he sought a collective voice, less focused on the individual self and more attuned to the vast injustices of history, which he gives a biblical dimension requiring biblical punishments and atonements.
All this led Neruda to his masterpiece, the Canto general ; Eng. Canto Generalan epic poem that encompasses the sweep of Latin American history from pre-Columbian times to the midth century. Toward the end of his career, the versatile Neruda turned to simple forms on simple topics—namely, his Odas elementales ; Elementary Odesin which he sings the praises of an artichoke, wood, and the like.
Paz was a much more cerebral poet, but he shared with Neruda an epic flair in poems such as Piedra de Sol ; Sun Stone and also a penchant for erotic themes. Like Neruda, he too was a Republican activist during the Spanish Civil War, but the war experience turned him away from communism and all other political utopian movements.
The poems that appear in the edition are included in the English-language volume The Collected Poems of Octavio Paz, — Sex, Art, and American Culture: Essays [Camille Paglia] on nationwidesecretarial.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A collection of twenty of Paglia's out-spoken essays on contemporary issues in America's ongoing cultural debate such as Anita Hill.
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- The modern definition of ‘culture’ is the ‘art, literature, music and other intellectual expressions of a particular society or time’ (“Culture,” Oxford’s Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English).
This collection of essays, on French and francophone prose, poetry, drama, visual art, cinema and thought, assesses guilt and shame in relation to structures of social morality, language and self-expression, the thinking of trauma, and the ethics of forgiveness.
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