Consequences of the conflicts in sri

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Among the consequences of war, the impact on the mental health of the civilian population is one of the most significant.

Consequences of the conflicts in sri

Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils.

In major Sinhalese and Tamil political organizations united to form the Ceylon National Congress, under the leadership of Arunachalam, to press the colonial government for more constitutional reforms. William Manning actively encouraged the concept of "communal representation" and created the Colombo town seat inwhich dangled between the Tamils and the Sinhalese.

Perera and Philip Gunawardena demanded the replacement of English as the official language by Sinhala and Tamil. In November a motion that "in the Municipal and Police Courts of the Island the proceedings should be in the vernacular " and that "entries in police stations should be recorded in the language in which they are originally stated" were passed by the State Council and referred to the Legal Secretary.

However, in J. Jayawardene moved in the State Council that Sinhala should replace English as the official language. Inimmediately after independence, a controversial law was passed by the Ceylon Parliament called the Ceylon Citizenship Actwhich deliberately discriminated against the Indian Tamil ethnic minority by making it virtually impossible for them to obtain citizenship in the country.

Over the next three decades more thanIndian Tamils were deported back to India. In Prime Minister S. Bandaranaike passed the " Sinhala Only Act ", which replaced English with Sinhala as the only official language of the country. This was seen as a deliberate attempt to discourage the Sri Lankan Tamils from working in the Ceylon Civil Service and other public services.

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The civil war was a direct result of the escalation of the confrontational politics that followed. At this time Anton Balasinghaman employee of the British High Commission in Colombo, began to participate in separatist activities.

In the late s several Tamil youth, among them Velupillai Prabhakaranalso became involved in these activities. They carried out several hit-and-run operations against pro-government Tamil politicians, Sri Lanka police and the civil administration.

During the s [37] the Policy of standardization was initiated. Under the policy, students were admitted to university in proportion to the number of applicants who sat for the examination in their language.

Officially the policy was designed to increase the representation of students from rural areas. In practice the policy reduced the numbers of Sri Lankan Tamil students who had previously, based on their examination scores alone, gained admission in a higher proportion than their participation in the examination.

They were now required to gain higher marks than Sinhalese students to gain admission to universities. The policy was abandoned in A further movement, the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students EROSformed in Manchester and London; it became the backbone of the Eelamist movement in the diaspora, arranging passports and employment for immigrants and levying a heavy tax on them.

The resolution called for the creation of a secular, socialist state of Tamil Eelam, based on the right of self-determination. Krishnan, who later became the first international representative of LTTE.

The "boys" were the product of the post-war population explosion. Many partially educated, unemployed Tamil youth fell for revolutionary solutions to their problems.

The leftist parties had remained "non-communal" for a long time, but the Federal Party as well as its offshoot, the TULFdeeply conservative and dominated by Vellalar casteism, did not attempt to form a national alliance with the leftists in their fight for language rights.

Following the sweeping electoral victory of the United National Party UNP in Julythe TULF became the leading opposition party, with around one-sixth of the total electoral vote winning on a party platform of secession from Sri Lanka.

After the riots the J. Jayewardene government made one concession to the Tamil population; it lifted the policy of standardization for university admission that had driven many Tamil youths into militancy.

The concession was regarded by the militants as too little too late, and violent attacks continued. By this time TULF started losing its grip over the militant groups. Thereafter, Tamil political parties were unable to represent the interests of the Tamil community.

Four Four Bravo and Eelam War I Supported by the ongoing politics of conflict in Sri Lanka, politicised Tamil youth in the north and east started to form militant groups.

Consequences of the conflicts in sri

These groups developed independently of the Colombo Tamil leadership, and in the end rejected and annihilated them.

The LTTE initially carried out a campaign of violence against the state, particularly targeting policemen and also moderate Tamil politicians who attempted a dialogue with the government.

Their first major operation was the assassination of the mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappahin by Prabhakaran. This violent example of ethnic biblioclasm was a major turning point in convincing the Tamil people that the government could not protect them or their cultural heritage and persuaded many of them to back a separate state.

The assassination in of a Tamil Member of Parliament, M. Between —3, Tamils were estimated to have been killed, [46] and many more fled Sinhalese-majority areas. This is considered the beginning of the civil war.

Apart from the LTTE, there initially was a plethora of militant groups see list. Initially, the LTTE gained prominence due to devastating attacks such as the Kent and Dollar Farm massacres ofwhere hundreds of men, women and children were attacked during the night as they slept and were hacked to death with fatal blows to the head from axes; and the Anuradhapura massacre ofwhere the LTTE indiscriminately opened fire, killing and wounding civilians within Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Buddhist shrine.

The Anuradhapura massacre was apparently answered by government forces with the Kumudini boat massacre in which over 23 Tamil civilians died.The small island of Sri Lanka is a country rich with agricultural treasures from bountiful tea leaves to lush paddy fields.

The Consequences Of Sri Lankas Civil War. Print Reference this However, a negative effect of colonization was that ethnic politics and conflicts were beginning to emerge because the Tamil population believed they.

Sri Lanka Conflict. Consequences of Conflict in Sri Lanka Political consequence consequence (SC). (PC), Economic consequence (EC), and Social PC: Political consequence is an important consequence of the Sri Lankan Conflict. Armed conflict arose out of the intense displeasure of the Tamils at their discrimination.

An armed . Lesson 2 of 4 In this lesson, we came to terms with the horrific consequences of the conflict in Sri Lanka. Having considered the political consequences of arm.

Working Paper The Consequences of Conflict: Livelihoods and Development in Nepal David Seddon Karim Hussein December Overseas Development Institute.

The Sri Lankan Conflict. Sri Lanka’s government has scored a string of wins in its long-standing civil war with Tamil militants. But it faces the challenge of integrating its Tamil minority. The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Sri Lankan Tamils.

Before and during the early part of colonial rule by Europeans, Sri Lanka was under the rule of three separate kingdoms.

War and peace was a status quo between nations, unlike the present status quo.

Sri Lanka: Conflict and peace | Peace Insight