An introduction to the history of athens and sparta

The first refers primarily to the main cluster of settlements in the valley of the Eurotas River: Herodotus seems to denote by it the Mycenaean Greek citadel at Therapnein contrast to the lower town of Sparta.

An introduction to the history of athens and sparta

The early period Factors inducing settlement The site of Athens has been inhabited since the Neolithic Period before bce. Evidence for this has come from pottery finds on and around the Acropolis but particularly from a group of about 20 shallow wells, or pits, on the northwest slope of the Acropolis, just below the Klepsydra spring.

These wells contained burnished pots of excellent quality, which show that even at this remote period Athens had a settled population and high technical and artistic standards. There are similar indications of occupation in the Early and Middle Bronze ages — bce. The earliest buildings date from the Late Bronze Ageparticularly about bce when the Acropolis was the citadel.

Around its top was built a massive wall of cyclopean masonry a type of construction using huge blocks without mortar. The construction of this wall probably marks the union of the 12 towns of Attica the department in which Athens lies under the leadership of Athens, an event traditionally ascribed to Theseus.

The palace of the king was in the area of the later Erechtheum, but almost no traces of it have been identified. The town, insofar as it was outside the Acropolis, lay to the south, where wells and slight remains of houses have been found.

The principal cemetery lay to the northwest, and several richly furnished chamber tombs and many smaller ones have been discovered in the area that later became the Agora. Whether through the strength of its walls, the valour of its citizens, or its geographical position away from the main route to the PeloponnesusAthens seems to have weathered the Late Bronze and Early Iron ages, troubled times, better than other, more important centres.

There is no evidence of complete or widespread destruction, as at Mycenae and Pylos. In fact, the pottery styles show an unbroken development from Sub-Mycenaean later than Mycenaean but not yet Greek to Proto-Geometric the earliest phase of Geometric and Geometric bce to about bce.

Furthermore, there is positive evidence that from about bce the city began to expand in a northwesterly direction, into the area that had previously been confined to cemeteries.

Wells appear, indicating occupation by the living, and any graves in the area are increasingly confined to restricted plots or placed along the roads outside the town limits.

The Agora and some of the public buildings seem, to judge from scattered notices in later writers, to have been located west and northwest of the Acropolis.

Though there are few remains of buildings, the wealth and prosperity of the city can be appreciated from late Geometric graves found in the area of the later Dipylon and Erian gates. These graves were adorned with large vases, sometimes more than five feet high, decorated with geometric patterns and with scenes of battles, processions, and funeral ceremonies.

On the Acropolis the old primitive shrines began to be replaced with large stone temples. About bce a temple to Athena known as the Hecatompedon Hundred-Footer was erected on the site later to be occupied by the Parthenon. The pediments triangular spaces forming the gable of this temple were decorated with large-scale sculpture in gaily coloured porous limestone, representing groups of lions bringing down bulls and depicting snaky-tailed monsters in the angles.

These sculptures are now displayed in the New Acropolis Museum. In bce Peisistratus reorganized the Panathenaic Games in honour of Athena on a four-yearly basis.

About bce a large peripteral temple one having a row of columns on all sides to Athena Polias Guardian of the City was erected near the centre of the Acropolis, on the site of the old Bronze Age palace.

It had marble pedimental sculpture representing the battle of the gods and giants. Besides these two major temples there were five smaller buildings, treasuries and the like, and a wealth of votive offerings in marble, bronze, and terra-cotta.

The Acropolis thus became a full-fledged sanctuary. This change from citadel to sanctuary is also reflected in the arrangement of the entrance at the west.History The early period Factors inducing settlement.

The site of Athens has been inhabited since the Neolithic Period (before bce).Evidence for this has come from pottery finds on and around the Acropolis but particularly from a group of about 20 shallow wells, or pits, on the northwest slope of the Acropolis, just below the Klepsydra spring.

The neutrality of this article is questioned because it may show systemic bias.. In particular, there may be a strong bias in favor of European history.

Please see the discussion on the talk nationwidesecretarial.com do not remove this message until the issue is resolved. Later, when Athens sent their fleet to help defend its ally Cocyra against a Corinthian invasion during the Battle of Sybota in BCE, their action was interpreted by Sparta as aggression instead of assistance, as Corinth was an ally of Sparta.

The city-state of Athens was the birthplace of many significant ideas. Ancient Athenians were a thoughtful people who enjoyed the systematic study of subjects such as science, philosophy, and history, to name a few.

The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought.

An introduction to the history of athens and sparta

The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A. Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A. Irwin (University of Chicago Press, , -- also once issued by Penguin as Before Philosophy).

In , the British School at Athens began a thorough exploration of Laconia, and in the following year excavations were made at Thalamae, Geronthrae, and Angelona near nationwidesecretarial.com , excavations began in Sparta.

A small circus described by Leake proved to be a theatre-like building constructed soon after AD around the altar and in front of the temple of Artemis Orthia.

Sparta - HISTORY