Chinese course selections include listening, reading, speaking, and writing, as well as dance lessons, traditional Chinese art, Kung Fu, Tai Ji, and Yoga. CLI also offers two to three English-taught courses each semester covering topics ranging from history and economics to political science, cross-cultural communication, and international relations.
Cognition clinic and memory clinic of a public hospital in Hong Kong. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve and regression analyses. A score of less than 22 should prompt further diagnostic assessment.
It has comparable sensitivity with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination for detection of mild cognitive impairment. It is brief and feasible to conduct in the clinical setting, and can be completed in less than 15 minutes.
Implications for clinical practice or policy HK-MoCA is brief and feasible to conduct in the clinical setting, and can be completed in less than 15 minutes. Mild cognitive impairment MCI is a clinical transitional state in which a person is cognitively impaired, typically in the memory domain, which is greater than that expected for a person at the given age and education level.
Prevalence of MCI varies widely, depending on the diagnostic criteria used and population studied. In practice, cognitive screening tools are used to detect persons with cognitive impairment who then undergo a detailed assessment process to ascertain the subtype, severity, caregiver status, and the presence of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.
Consequently, it has low sensitivity for MCI patient detection. The MoCA is a one-page test with a maximum score of One point is added if the person has 12 years of education or less.
A score of 23 to 26 represents MCI, 17 to 22 represents moderate impairment, and 16 or below represents severe impairment suggesting dementia.
Cantonese-speaking Chinese adults aged 60 years or above, who were seen for suspected cognitive impairment and gave consent, were recruited.
They were divided into three groups: Besides, NC were recruited from those who attended clinics of other subspecialties or elderly vaccination programmes under Department of Medicine and Geriatrics. Patients were excluded if they had a history, as documented in medical records, of neurodegenerative disorders, central nervous system infection, brain tumour, significant head trauma, subdural haematoma, epilepsy, significant psychiatric disorders such as major depression or schizophreniasubstance abuse, or alcoholism.
Besides, persons with inability to use a pen or with communication barriers such as deafness or significant language or speech problem were also excluded.
The flowchart of participant recruitment is shown in the Figure. Flowchart of participant recruitment Measurements Clinical assessment Basic demographic information age, gender, and education levelcardiovascular risk factors diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, coronary heart disease, and stroke as well as clinical information about drinking and smoking habits was collected.
The administration was standardised and was done in turn by two investigators. Fatigue may reduce attention span and increase the likelihood of error. Hence, there was a 5-tominute break to minimise the fatigue effect. Functional decline of demented subjects was determined using the GDS.
Stages 1 to 3 are pre-dementia stages. Stages 4 to 7 are dementia stages. Beginning in stage 5, an individual can no longer survive without assistance. Sample size calculation Statistical software, MedCalc V Based on a previous study, 15 the estimated prevalence rates of MCI and dementia were 8.
The overall sample size was determined to be NC: Group differences in demographic characteristics and various medical diseases were examined using one-way analysis of variance or Chi squared test for categorical data.
Pairwise comparisons were performed afterwards with the significance level adjusted by the Bonferroni method. For differences attaining statistical significance, multivariate linear regression was performed to examine the influence upon performance of the HK-MoCA total score.
Inter-rater reliability was reflected by intraclass correlation coefficients with a sub-sample of 20 participants persons with cognitive impairment and NC being tested 2 to 4 weeks apart. Convenience sampling was employed with 10 participants by each investigator.
According to the optimal cutoff points suggested in this study, five of them were NC, four were persons with MCI, and 11 were demented persons. With that, optimal cutoff scores were chosen using highest Youden index sensitivity — [1 — specificity]. In case the indexes were very close between the two scores, the one with higher sensitivity would be chosen.that for the Chinese, the term “romantic relationship” or “dating relationship” contains the elements of necessary seriousness and long-term commitment, therefore a romantic relationship is often perceived as one step before marriage(Hsu, ).
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This paper involves an investigation of the relationship between Chinese college students’ international posture and their intercultural willingness to communicate (IWTC) by means of questionnaires obtained from Chinese college students.
The results of the Pearson correlation show that there is a significant positive relationship between international posture and IWTC. Could getting a good night’s sleep really help you lose weight? Studies continue to suggest that the answer is yes.
In one of the more recent studies, researchers from the University of Murcia in Spain found that poor quality sleep was linked to a higher body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 2, adult twins.
Results. Forty-eight reports for the relationship between serum TGF-β1 levels and the risk of T2DN and 13 studies on the association of the TGF-β1 TC gene polymorphism with susceptibility to T2DN in Chinese population were retrieved from this study.
A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people.